The making-or-breaking of material and resource efficiency in the Nordics


Cleaner and Responsible Consumption, vol.11, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.clrc.2023.100151
  • Journal Name: Cleaner and Responsible Consumption
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Keywords: Economic complexity, Energy mix, Environmental technologies, Material and resource productivity, Nordics, Sustainable development
  • Istanbul Gelisim University Affiliated: Yes


The relevance of efficient direct material input through both export market and domestic material sources offers useful material and resource productivity guidelines from both economic and environmental sustainability dimensions. In the current context, the drivers of material and resource efficiency in the Nordic region are examined by utilizing requisite empirical approaches over the period 1995–2020. The investigation revealed that economic activities which are characterized by Gross domestic product (GDP) alongside the growth of urban population and utilization of oil energy are all detrimental to the region's resource efficiency. It implies that material utilization efficiency cannot be optimized with the current trend of the region's GDP, urban population growth and the use of dirty energy. Contrarily, the findings, further revealed that alternative energy utilization vis-à-vis renewables are key indicators to spur material and resource efficiency in the region, thus throwing more support for the region's unavoidable energy transition goal. These highlighted results alongside the Granger causality inference offer sustainable development measures that are specifically motivated through the improvement of efficient and optimization of output.