Cantilever Soldier Pile Design: The Multiobjective Optimization of Cost and CO2 Emission via Pareto Front Analysis

BEKDAŞ G., Arama Z. A., TÜRKAKIN O. H., Kayabekir A. E., Geem Z. W.

Sustainability (Switzerland), vol.14, no.15, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 15
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su14159416
  • Journal Name: Sustainability (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: cantilever soldier pile, harmony search, Pareto optimality, sustainable design
  • Istanbul Gelisim University Affiliated: Yes


In the context of this study, it is focused on the design of cantilever soldier piles under the concept of Pareto optimality with multiobjective analyses of cost and CO2 emission considering the change in the excavation depth, the shear strength parameters of the foundation soil strata, and the unit costs and unit emission amounts of structural materials. Considering this aim, the harmony search algorithm was used as a tool to achieve the integrated effects of the solution variants. The lateral response of the soil mass was determined based on the active Rankine earth pressure theory and the design process was shaped according to the beams on the elastic foundation soil assumption. Moreover, the specification envisaged by the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-11) was used to control the structural requirements of the design. Pareto front graphs and also design charts were created to achieve the eco- and cost optimization, simultaneously, for the design with arbitrarily selected cases to compare the results of the multiobjective analysis to minimize both the cost and the CO2 emission.