Load-Velocity Relationship Variables to Assess the Maximal Neuromuscular Capacities During the Back-Squat Exercise

Pérez-Castilla A., Jukic I., Janicijevic D., Akyildiz Z., Senturk D., García-Ramos A.

Sports Health, vol.14, no.6, pp.885-893, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/19417381211064603
  • Journal Name: Sports Health
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus
  • Page Numbers: pp.885-893
  • Keywords: force-velocity relationship, reliability, stretch-shortening cycle, validity, velocity-based training
  • Istanbul Gelisim University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 The Author(s).Background: The relationship between the external load lifted and movement velocity can be modeled by a simple linear regression, and the variables derived from the load-velocity (L-V) relationship were recently used to estimate the maximal neuromuscular capacities during 2 variants of the back-squat exercise. Hypothesis: The L-V relationship variables will be highly reliable and will be highly associated with the traditional tests commonly used to evaluate the maximal force and power. Study Design: Twenty-four male wrestlers performed 5 testing sessions (a 1-repetition maximum [1RM] session, and 4 experimental sessions [2 with the concentric-only back-squat and 2 with the eccentric-concentric back-squat]). Each experimental session consisted of performing 3 repetitions against 5 loads (45%-55%-65%-75%-85% of the 1RM), followed by single 1RM attempts. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Individual L-V relationships were modeled from the mean velocity collected under all loading conditions from which the following 3 variables were calculated: load-axis intercept (L0), velocity-axis intercept (v0), and area under the line (Aline = L0·v0/2). The back-squat 1RM strength and the maximum power determined as the apex of the power-velocity relationship (Pmax) were also determined as traditional measures of maximal force and power capacities, respectively. Results: The between-session reliability was high for the Aline (coefficient of variation [CV] range = 2.58%-4.37%; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] range = 0.98-0.99) and generally acceptable for L0 and v0 (CV range = 5.08%-9.01%; ICC range = 0.45-0.96). Regarding the concurrent validity, the correlations were very large between L0 and the 1RM strength (rrange = 0.87-0.88) and nearly perfect between Aline and Pmax (r = 0.98-0.99). Conclusion: The load-velocity relationship variables can be obtained with a high reliability (L0, v0, and Aline) and validity (L0 and Aline) during the back-squat exercise. Clinical Relevance: The load-velocity relationship modeling represents a quick and simple procedure to estimate the maximal neuromuscular capacities of lower-body muscles.