Material productivity and material intensity as drivers of environmental sustainability in G-7 economies

ÇELİK A., USMAN O., Alola A. A.

International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol.31, no.1, pp.43-56, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/13504509.2023.2253757
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, Index Islamicus, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.43-56
  • Keywords: environmental quality, G7 countries, material footprint, SDGs, Sustainable consumption and production
  • Istanbul Gelisim University Affiliated: Yes


To further understanding the perspective of sustainable consumption and production, which is one of the key elements of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), this study examines the environmental effects of material domestic productivity, material footprint and material intensity in the world’s most advanced economies–the Group of Seven (G7) countries by using the dataset that spans over the time 1970 to 2019. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis was used as a theoretical framework. By applying the mean group dynamic least squares (DOLSMG) estimation approach and using carbon and greenhouse gas emissions as environmental indicators, the outcome validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis but only in the United States and Germany. Material productivity, footprint and intensity exert a significantly negative impact on the environmental indicators, thus demonstrating the existence of a feasible sustainable consumption and production approach among the countries. By contrast, especially for the country-specific results, material productivity and intensity aggravated environmental degradation by increasing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in France, Italy, and Japan. A robustness check using the Dumitrescu-Hurlin Granger causality approach aligns with the above-mentioned results. The findings suggest policy recommendations for a more effective approach to reducing material intensification across economic sectors in advanced economies.