Ecological footprint, economic growth and technological change in Turkey: evidence from Bayer-Hanck combined co-integration approach

Özdemir O., Çevikalp S.

International Journal of Green Economics, vol.15, no.2, pp.127-148, 2021 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1504/ijge.2021.119917
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Green Economics
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, FRANCIS, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, EconLit, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.127-148
  • Keywords: Bayer-Hanck combined Co-integration approach, Ecological footprint, Economic growth, Structural break, Technological change
  • Istanbul Gelisim University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigates the tripartite relationship between ecological footprint, economic growth, and technological change in Turkey over the 1961-2017 period. The sample is divided into three periods as 1961-1989 (i.e., pre-liberalisation era), 1990-2017 (i.e., post-liberalisation era), and 1961-2017 (i.e., full-sample era) to grasp the structural transformation of socio-economic framework in Turkey. The econometric analysis is based on the combined co-integration test developed by Bayer and Hanck in 2013 to detect whether the series are co-integrated or not. The empirical findings show that the series are highly co-integrated in terms of different estimated models and each selected period. The estimation results also indicate that there is a long-run linkage among the series. In other words, each indicator has an economic meaning to contribute to their changes over the long-run period.