The presence of sodium content and sodium-containing food additives in packaged foods and beverages sold in Turkey

Bayram H. M., Ozturkcan A.

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol.102, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 102
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jfca.2021.104078
  • Journal Name: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Analytical Abstracts, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Sodium, Food supply, Food environment, Nutrition labeling, Public health, Packaged foods and beverages
  • Istanbul Gelisim University Affiliated: Yes


Excess sodium (Na) intake is a significant leading cause of the development of non-communicable diseases. However, there is no scientific evidence on Na content (and its variation) in packaged products sold in Turkey. This study aimed to determine Na levels and Na-containing food additives of packaged products that are available in supermarkets across Turkey in 2020 in addition to evaluating the proportion of foods that comply with the World Health Organization global Na benchmark targets (2021). Of the 2975 packaged products analyzed, 60.3 % of products contained salt and 53.5 % of them contained a Na-containing food additive. A total of 31.8 % of products were classified as having a high Na content and the highest median Na levels were among the soy sauces and fish sauce group (4280 mg/100 g or ml; followed by olive group (2160 mg/100 g or ml), and soft to medium ripened cheese group (1880 mg/100 g or ml). The most used Na-containing food additive was sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. New regulations can be developed for the reformulation of packaged products containing high Na content and the progress of reducing Na intake of the population and improved health outcomes can be monitored over time.